Security tips and tricks for Consumers

There are many steps that consumers and end users can take to protect themselves. Few recommendations about security tips and tricks for the consumers are given below:

Secure yourself at first: Security and awareness should come from the end users at first. During the using of internet end user should have to check that antivirus have installed and updated properly in their local machine. They also make sure that their Local PC’s firewall settings, browser cookies settings are in active state.

Think before you click: Before clicking any email attachment at first make sure that this email and attachment has come from the right sources. Opening the wrong attachment can introduce malware into the system as well as infected the system. In that case, unless trusting the sender, never view or open any email attachments.

Provide shield in your own data:  It is need to be careful during provide the personal data (login information, birth date, pet names etc.) in online especially any social network site or professional networking sites or any e-commerce site. The information that share online puts the end users at risk for social engineering attacks.

Always use strong passwords:  Always use strong and unique passwords for any accounts.  Password shall be combination of at least three of stated criteria like uppercase, lowercase, special characters and numbers.  It is necessary to change passwords in a frequent manner like every three months and obviously never reuse the passwords.

Never install free ware version software: Versions of software that claim to be free, cracked or pirated can expose the end users to malware. So, need to be careful in that case.


Good Ethical Hacker – How to be

Ethical hackers demand is increasing day by day as they protect the computer systems from dangerous intrusions. An ethical hacker attempts to bypass system security and search for any weak points that could be exploited by malicious hackers and their output can be used by any organization to improve the system security and to minimize any potential attacks.

To be a professional ethical hacker, a person should have to concentrate on the below issues:

  • Examine the fundamental requirements to become an ethical hacker.
  • Learn about different types of hackers, such as White Hat, Grey Hat and Black Hat hackers.
  • Choose the area where anybody would want to work primarily with hardware or software.
  • Create some programming interests such as C, C++, Python or Java, assess strengths and gain strong control on these.
  • Learn about different operating systems specially UNIX operating system as well as Windows and Mac OS.
  • Start exploring different ways regarding hardware and software to figure out how to take control of the situations and how to keep a PC from getting hacked.
  • Stay connected to the hacker community by sharing technical information and ideas.
  • Do a professional course (CEH, Security+, CISSP, CISSO), earn certificates and standout from the crowd.
  • Practical experience of the real world (Ethical Hacking regarding information security) would be a good advantage for the ethical hackers.
  • Finally read, read and learn about the latest threads and upcoming threads from books or online or from different security blogs.

How to see list of objects that have been locked for 60 seconds or more

SELECT SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(w.session_id),1,5) WSID, p1.spid WPID,
SUBSTR(s1.username,1,12) “WAITING User”,
SUBSTR(s1.osuser,1,8) “OS User”,
SUBSTR(s1.program,1,20) “WAITING Program”,
s1.client_info “WAITING Client”,
SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(h.session_id),1,5) HSID, p2.spid HPID,
SUBSTR(s2.username,1,12) “HOLDING User”,
SUBSTR(s2.osuser,1,8) “OS User”,
SUBSTR(s2.program,1,20) “HOLDING Program”,
s2.client_info “HOLDING Client”,
o.object_name “HOLDING Object”
FROM gv$process p1, gv$process p2, gv$session s1,
gv$session s2, dba_locks w, dba_locks h, dba_objects o
WHERE w.last_convert > 60
AND h.mode_held != ‘None’
AND h.mode_held != ‘Null’
AND w.mode_requested != ‘None’
AND s1.row_wait_obj# = o.object_id
AND w.lock_type(+) = h.lock_type
AND w.lock_id1(+) = h.lock_id1
AND w.lock_id2 (+) = h.lock_id2
AND w.session_id = s1.sid (+)
AND h.session_id = s2.sid (+)
AND s1.paddr = p1.addr (+)
AND s2.paddr = p2.addr (+)
ORDER BY w.last_convert DESC;

How to view all currently locked objects in database

SELECT username  U_NAME, owner OBJ_OWNER,
object_name, object_type, s.osuser,
DECODE(l.block,
0,  ‘Not Blocking’,
1,  ‘Blocking’,
2,  ‘Global’) STATUS,
DECODE(v.locked_mode,
0,  ‘None’,
1,  ‘Null’,
2,  ‘Row-S (SS)’,
3,  ‘Row-X (SX)’,
4,  ‘Share’,
5,  ‘S/Row-X (SSX)’,
6,  ‘Exclusive’, TO_CHAR(lmode)
) MODE_HELD
FROM gv$locked_object v, dba_objects d,
gv$lock l, gv$session s
WHERE v.object_id = d.object_id
AND (v.object_id = l.id1)
AND  v.session_id = s.sid
ORDER BY username, session_id;

How to check the used & free space in the tablespace

SELECT /* + RULE */ df.tablespace_name “Tablespace”,
df.bytes / (1024 * 1024)”Size (MB)”,
SUM(fs.bytes) / (1024 * 1024) “Free (MB)”,
Nvl(Round(SUM(fs.bytes) * 100 / df.bytes),1) “% Free”,
Round((df.bytes – SUM(fs.bytes)) * 100 / df.bytes) “% Used”
FROM dba_free_space fs,
(SELECT tablespace_name,SUM(bytes) bytes
FROM dba_data_files
GROUP BY tablespace_name) df
WHERE fs.tablespace_name (+) = df.tablespace_name
GROUP BY df.tablespace_name,df.bytes
UNION ALL
SELECT /* + RULE */ df.tablespace_name tspace,
fs.bytes / (1024 * 1024),
SUM(df.bytes_free) / (1024 * 1024),
Nvl(Round((SUM(fs.bytes) – df.bytes_used) * 100 / fs.bytes), 1),
Round((SUM(fs.bytes) – df.bytes_free) * 100 / fs.bytes)
FROM dba_temp_files fs,
(SELECT tablespace_name,bytes_free,bytes_used
FROM v$temp_space_header
GROUP BY tablespace_name,bytes_free,bytes_used) df
WHERE fs.tablespace_name (+) = df.tablespace_name
GROUP BY df.tablespace_name,fs.bytes,df.bytes_free,df.bytes_used
ORDER BY 4 DESC;

SELECT /* + RULE */ df.file_name ,df.tablespace_name “Tablespace”,
df.bytes / (1024 * 1024)”Size (MB)”,
SUM(fs.bytes) / (1024 * 1024) “Free (MB)”,
Nvl(Round(SUM(fs.bytes) * 100 / df.bytes),1) “% Free”,
Round((df.bytes – SUM(fs.bytes)) * 100 / df.bytes) “% Used”
FROM dba_free_space fs,
(SELECT file_name,tablespace_name,SUM(bytes) bytes
FROM dba_data_files
GROUP BY file_name,tablespace_name) df
WHERE fs.tablespace_name (+) = df.tablespace_name
GROUP BY df.tablespace_name,df.bytes,df.file_name
UNION ALL
SELECT /* + RULE */ fs.file_name,df.tablespace_name tspace,
fs.bytes / (1024 * 1024),
SUM(df.bytes_free) / (1024 * 1024),
Nvl(Round((SUM(fs.bytes) – df.bytes_used) * 100 / fs.bytes), 1),
Round((SUM(fs.bytes) – df.bytes_free) * 100 / fs.bytes)
FROM dba_temp_files fs,
(SELECT tablespace_name,bytes_free,bytes_used
FROM v$temp_space_header
GROUP BY tablespace_name,bytes_free,bytes_used) df
WHERE fs.tablespace_name (+) = df.tablespace_name
GROUP BY df.tablespace_name,fs.bytes,df.bytes_free,df.bytes_used,fs.file_name
ORDER BY 1 DESC;